A person uses manipulation software to construct and manipulate a model external to herself—a virtual object represented within the computer, or a remote physical object. This is winnowed down to a dozen, using context that is inferred entirely from the search term contributed by the user.
Further, the user might prefer to learn information while using her hands for other purposes, such as writing or eating or stroking a cat.
This manipulation can be done in the same graphical domain as the information. Why all this matters. Did I just miss a train?
The user always sees the software presenting information, instead of herself instructing the software. Graphical manipulation domains present the context model in an appropriate, informative setting. What is relevant information? They construct a model to explain past contexts, and use the inferred relationships to predict the current context.
When the user clicks the heart buttonthe trip is added to a bookmarks list. Documents created with manipulation software. This allows the viewer to differentiate between a book that was unanimously judged middling and one that was loved and hated —these are both 3-star ratings, but have very different meanings.
I want to see how all of this information interrelates, make connections, and ultimately make a decision about what to do when.
That is, what did other people think of it, and do I trust them? Licklider once examined how he spent his research time: For example, Google Maps offers both absolute navigation typing in an address and relative navigation panning and zooming the current map.
To derive what software should do, we have to start with what people do. She reads and interprets pictures on a screen. Communication software serves the human urge to communicate. But much modern software abandons this tradition, as seen on the website of a popular moving company: Alan Cooper defines excise in this context as a cognitive or physical penalty for using a tool—effort demanded by the tool that is not directly in pursuit of a goal.
By reading some information, the user is indicating a topic of interest. Relative navigation lets the user correct the model, not construct it.
For example, filling a gas tank is done to support the car, not the goal of arriving at a destination. That is, the user wants to compare trips along the time dimension, but not the space dimensions. People turn to software to learn the meaning of words, learn which countries were bombed today, and learn to cook a paella.
How close together are they? When she looks in the morning, she sees by default the San Francisco-bound schedule; in the evening, the Berkeley-bound schedule.
A good graphic designer understands how to arrange information on the page so the reader can ask and answer questions, make comparisons, and draw conclusions.SEMITIC: A non-Indo-European family of languages including Arabic and Hebrew. SEMIVOWEL: A sound articulated in the same way as a vowel sound, but which functions like a consonant mi-centre.comes include [w] and [y].In some languages such as Welsh, these can function as graphemes for pure vowels.
Magic Ink Information Software and the Graphical Interface by Bret Victor.Download